All-ceramic restorations are widely applied for reconstructions in recent years. (1) From material point of view, all-ceramic restorations may be categorized into glass-based ceramics and poly-crystalline ceramics in which there is no glass in their composition. (2) Zirconia is one example of polycrystalline ceramics (2) Zirconia restorations become increasingly common in dentistry over the last few years because of its favorable esthetic, mechanical, and biocompatible properties. (3,4)
The cementation protocol for all-ceramic restorations may be essential for success. (5) The adhesive cementation procedure for glass-based ceramics is well defined which involves hydrofluoric acid etching and silanization for chemical bonding. (6) On the other hand, Zirconia ceramics can be cemented with conventional or adhesive resin cements (7,8,9) The appropriate clinical protocol of adhesive cementation of zirconia may be still under controversial discussion. (6) that may be due to the chemical inertia of this material which may negatively affect the establishment of a strong, durable chemical bond with resin cements. (10)
In order to enhance bond strength of resin cements to zirconia, different methods have been suggested. (11) including air-borne particle abrasion with alumina particles to facilitate resin-ceramic bonding micromechanically (physically), (12,13,14 ) physicochemical activation of the ceramic surfaces using silica-coated alumina particles followed by silanization (15,16,17,18) or chemical activation with functional-monomer–containing adhesive promoters or resin cements (18) Other methods also included, selective infiltration etching (19) Er:YAG laser irradiation,(20) C02 laser treatment (21) and fluorination technique.(22)
Primers play an important role in adhesive procedures for zirconia ceramics (6) However, the availability of different primers makes...
The clinical success of ceramic restorations is affected by the ceramic bonding procedure. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments, including the use of self-etching ceramic primer (SECP), on resin cement-glass ceramic bond strength. Thirty lithium disilicate ceramic (LDC) rectangles (3 mm × 3 mm × 8 mm) were fabricated Specimens were randomly assigned into three experimental groups (n = 10) according to the surface treatment: Group 1-hydrofluoric acid [HF acid] silane universal adhesive; Group 2-HF universal adhesive; Group 3-SECP universal adhesive....
had undergone extraction of 12, 28, and 36 5 years ago, Ketac‐Fill with 47 a year ago and composite lling on the buccal surface of 26 a year ago. He had no speci c or relevant medical history. The patient was thoroughly assessed with his diet history, which revealed high sugar consumption and between meal snacking. The patient had no history of brushing teeth, use of interdental aids or mouthwash which accounted to poor oral hygiene. The patient had a history of pipe smoking once a day. On intraoral examination, carious lesions were revealed with teeth number 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 38, 37, 35, 34, 33, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47. Generalized mild redness of the marginal gingiva and interdental papillae with no periodontal pockets were observed as shown in Figure 1. High plaque scores were recorded. Smile pro ling and thorough examination of occlusion were done. The patient presented with loss of esthetics; diastema, missing 12 and black color stains on anterior teeth due to caries. Occlusion showed cross bite in mandibular left region, missing 36, mesial tilting of 37, and supraeruption of 15. There were no temporomandibular joint abnormalities detected. On soft tissue examination, nicotinic stomatitis was seen in palate area which can be attributed to his pipe smoking habit. Pretreatment photographs, diagnostic cast model workups, necessary radiographs which included orthopantomogram and full mouth series of X‐rays were taken as
A 25‐year‐old Saudi male reported with...
Modern dentalceramic is the esthetic material of choice and has contributed greatly to the increased demand on cosmetic indirect restorations. Adhesive cementation of glass-ceramic restorations with a composite resin of optimum physical properties can withstand higher masticatory forces and has demonstrated improved clinical performance1. Bonding of indirect ceramic restorations to tooth structure involves the luting agent to interact with two different surfaces i.e. enamel/dentin and ceramic. As compared to other ceramics lithium disilicateceramics offer enhanced flexural
1. Conservative Dental Science Department, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.
Corresponding author: “Zaid A. Al Jeaidi” < firstname.lastname@example.org >
JPDA Vol. 25 No. 02 April-June 2016 75
strength and fracture toughness2. Some investigators, due to improved mechanical properties, have also used LD ceramics for 3 unit bridges3,4.
As conditioning of tooth surface is a standard protocol for adhesive bonding, similar is the importance of conditioning the ceramic bonding surface for predictable adhesion. Hydrofluoric acid, as a surface treatment has a long term proven track record of favorable clinical outcome5. Similarly, for the formation of a durable chemical bond, silane application is recommended6,7. And many authors consider treatment of ceramic surface both with HF acid and silane as indispensable5,8-10.
In a recent study by Canay et al., 11 spectroscopic analyses showed formation of crystalline precipitates on the etched ceramic surfaces in the form of Na, K, Ca & Al by-products. These by-products of HF acid etch are readily insoluble in water and possibly contaminate the ceramic bonding surface....
Development of resin-bonded all-ceramic restoration has led to their extensive use as veneers, crowns, inlay and onlays. A glass ceramic based on lithium disilicate (LD) (SiO2–Li2O) crystals has been developed to extend the use of resin-bonded ceramic restorations for bridge construction. This pressed glass-ceramic has an improved flexural strength and fracture toughness as compared to others (leucite reinforced ceramics) and demonstrates abrasion resistance, chemical durability and optical properties well within the dental standards.1 Furthermore it has gained support for its use in fabrication of 3-unit bridges for posterior region up to the second premolar.1-3
The standard regime for conditioning teeth is etch-prime-bond. In a similar way, the internal surface of the ceramic restoration must be prepared to optimize the bond between the ceramic and resin. For the optimization of micromechanical bond hydrofluoric acid (HF acid) has been the preferred acid treatment for glass ceramics.4-6 In addition to this mechanically retentive surface, the application of a silane provides an effective and durable chemical bond.
The outcome of a case involving esthetic rehabilitation of the patient is dependent on the interdisciplinary approach and understanding . Every patient visiting the dental office brings with him higher level of esthetic expectations and requires thorough knowledge and adequate clinical expertise to fulfill such a requirement efficiently [2,3]. This unprecedented improvement in esthetic rehabilitation has occurred due to advancements in restorative materials and techniques .
replacement of missing teeth (Fig. 1). The medical history of the patient was not significant. He had a past dental history of extractions in the upper left and right back region due to caries. Thorough clinical examination revealed occlusal caries in relation to teeth 17, 16 and 37; proximal caries in relation to teeth 16, 15 and 26; temporary restoration in relation to tooth 47, missing teeth 14 and 25, Ellis Class III fractured 21 and Class II fracture with 12.
Traumatic injuries are the most common in upper anterior teeth which compromise both esthetics and function . Such injuries can result in fracture of teeth at different levels with varying difficulties of restorability and can also result in loss of vitality of the tooth and discoloration [6,7]. The cause for discoloration may be intra pulpal hemorrhage and pulp necrosis .
An orthopantomograph was advised along with intra oral periapical (IOPA) radiograph with teeth 21, 12 and 47 and bitewing radiograph with teeth 16, 15 and 26 (Fig. 2).
Bleaching of discolored teeth either vital or nonvital is a popular esthetic approach which...
To assess the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with a novel Zirconia (Zr) nano-particle filler containing bulk fill resin composite.Methods:
Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated using conventional step back preparation and warm lateral condensation filling. Post space preparation was performed using drills compatible for fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) on all teeth (n=45), and posts were cemented using self etch resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Samples were equally divided into three groups (n=15) based on the type of core materials, ZirconCore (ZC) MulticCore Flow (MC) and Luxacore Dual (LC). All specimens were mounted in acrylic resin and loads were applied (Universal testing machine) at 130° to the long axis of teeth, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The loads and the site at which the failures occurred were recorded. Data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using a statistical program. The means and standard deviations were compared using...
Objective: To evaluate micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of indirect resin composite inlay to dentin after specimen's storage in distilled water and lactic acid....
Few studies have investigated the prevalence of dental caries among school children in KSA. The aim of this study was to assess the dental caries status among urban and rural 12-14 years old in Qassim area for the purpose of establishing the dental treatment need....